English for Speakers of Other Languages

28. Summarize, Draw Conclusions & Make Generalizations

Level: Early Advanced/Advanced

Corresponding State Language Forms

Summarize a wide range of factual and imaginative texts, commenting on and discussing contrasting points of view and the main themes.

Comparative adjectives with conjunctions such as although, because, that, idiomatic phrases and passive voice.

Indicative mode: makes a statement of fact (The temperature is low.)

Abstract nouns: name things or ideas that people cannot touch or handle (beauty, honesty, comfort, love).

Subjunctive mode: expressing a condition contrary to fact or expressing a doubt (If only he were here.)

Convey finer, precise shades of meaning by using, with reasonable accuracy, a wide range of qualifying devices, such as adverbs that express degree (This class is too hard.); clauses expressing limitations (this is a school van, but it is only used for sports.); and complex sentences.

Auxiliary verb indicating desire or intent: would

Auxiliary verbs include modal verbs, which may express possibility: may, might, can, could

At the end of this language function, students will be able to...

  • Summarize actions, events, and thoughts
  • Make generalizations about factual statements
  • Use abstract nouns such as fame, love, freedom and honesty
  • Express a condition contrary to a fact or express doubt.
  • Draw conclusions

Sample Language Patterns:

Summarize actions, events, and thoughts:
  • I might ___ if I had ___.
  • The ___ could have been, ___ if ___.
  • None of the ___.
  • My argument with ___ is arising from/is coming from…
  • What I have read deals with…
  • What I have read has to do with…
  • What I understood from ___ has to do with…
  • It is clear that the____ has been ___( past participle).
  • It appears that the author has ____(past participle).
Make generalizations about factual statements:
  • A _____ can be (past participle) in _____.
  • They are ______(past participle) with ____.
  • ____(noun) is _____(past participle) to ____.
  • Indicative mode (states facts)
Use abstract nouns:
  • Fame
  • Beauty
  • Freedom
  • Honesty
  • Comfort
  • Love (etc.)
Express a condition contrary to a fact or express doubt:

Subjunctive mode:
  • If I/he/she/it/they/we were …
  • If I/he/she/it/they/we were ___ then….
  • If I/he/she/it/they/we were ___,…
  • I wish/ hope….
Draw Conclusions:
  • In conclusion the ___ is more ___ than ___.
  • As a conclusion, I …..
  • As a way to summarize my thoughts, it….